Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new welding process that may have significant advantages compared to the fusion
processes as follow: joining of conventionally non-fusion weldable alloys, reduced distortion and improved mechanical properties
of weldable alloys joints due to the pure solid-state joining of metals. In this paper, a three-dimensional model based on finite
element analysis is used to study the thermal history and thermomechanical process in the butt-welding of aluminum alloy 6061-
T6. The model incorporates the mechanical reaction of the tool and thermomechanical process of the welded material. The heat
source incorporated in the model involves the friction between the material and the probe and the shoulder. In order to provide a
quantitative framework for understanding the dynamics of the FSW thermomechanical process, the thermal history and the evolutionof longitudinal, lateral, and through-thickness stress in the friction stirred weld are simulated numerically. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique is used to measure the residual stress of the welded plate, and the measured results are used to validate the efficiency of the proposed model. The relationship between the calculated residual stresses of the weld and the process parameters such as tool traverse speed is presented. It is anticipated that the model can be extended to optimize the FSW process in order to minimize the residual stress of the weld.
2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Friction stir welding; Finite element method; Thermal history; Thermomechanical process; Evolutionary Stress; Residual stress
Finite element modeling of friction stir welding—thermal and thermomechanical analysis